"The ultimate root of all (84.000) afflictive emotions is the IGNORANCE grasping true existence. If you destroy ignorance, you will destroy ALL the afflictive emotions. Meditating on DEPENDENT RELATIONSHIP is the antidote to ignorance.
This profound dependent relationship of the nature is the SOLE means of realization!"
There is unanimous agreement that Nāgārjuna (ca 150–250 AD) is the most important Buddhist philosopher after the historical Buddha himself and one of the most original and influential thinkers in the history of Indian philosophy.
His philosophy of the “middle way” (madhyamaka) based around the central notion of “emptiness” (śūnyatā) influenced the Indian philosophical debate for a thousand years after his death; with the spread of Buddhism to Tibet, China, Japan and other Asian countries the writings of Nāgārjuna became an indispensable point of reference for their own philosophical inquiries.
A specific reading of Nāgārjuna's thought, called Prāsaṅgika-Madhyamaka, became the official philosophical position of Tibetan Buddhism which regards it as the pinnacle of philosophical sophistication up to the present day.
Nagarjuna taught that the city of Nirvana has three gates, also known as the three doors of liberation (vimoksamukha).: emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness.
The central concept around which all of Nāgārjuna's philosophy is built is the notion of emptiness (śūnyatā).
Emptiness is of course always the emptiness of something, and
the something Nāgārjuna has in mind here is svabhāva <> Bhāvanā literally means "development" or "cultivating" or "producing" in the sense of "calling into existence.". It is an important concept in Buddhist praxis. The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of loving kindness). When used on its own bhavana signifies contemplation and 'spiritual cultivation' generally. <>Vijñānais translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment."Viññāṇa is one of three overlapping Pali terms used to refer to the mind, the others being manas and citta. <>Rigpa means "the innermost, essential nature of mind". Rigpa is a Tibetan word, which in general means ‘intelligence’ or ‘awareness’ The key point is the differentiation between "the ordinary mind" and rigpa. In Dzogchen teaching, rigpa (Skt. vidyā; "knowledge", omniscient ?, alwetend) is the knowledge of the ground. The opposite of rigpa is marigpa (avidyā, ignorance). Rigpa has two aspects, namely kadag and lhun grub. Kadag means "purity" or specifically "primordial purity". Lhun grub implies automatic, self-caused or spontaneous actions or processes. As quality of rigpa it means "spontaneous presence". It may also mean "having a self-contained origin", being primordially Existent, without an origin, self-existent. This division is the Dzogchen-equivalent of the more common Mahayana wisdom and compassion division. <>Prajna, "wisdom" Wisdom translates two different Sanskrit and Tibetan terms: - (Skt. prajñā; sherab), the sixth of the six paramitas, defined as the precise discernment of all things and events. - (Skt. jñāna; yeshe), which is sometimes translated as "primordial wisdom". One of the two accumulations. Yeshe is discovered with sherab. Yeshe is understood by sherab, or approached by sherab.
Different terms have been used to translate this word into English: “inherent existence” and “intrinsic nature” appear to be the more popular choices, but “substance” and “essence” have also been proposed. Svabhava literally means "own-being" or "own-becoming". Svabhava is een samengesteld woord dat is afgeleid van de wortel bhu, die ‘worden’ betekent – niet zozeer ‘zijn’ in de passieve zin, maar veeleer iets ‘worden’, ‘uitgroeien tot’ iets. None of these cover the full complexity of the term, however. We therefore have to give some more detailed account of the way svabhāva is characterized in Nāgārjuna's thought. By understanding what empty things are supposed to be empty of we simultaneously gain a more precise understanding of the concept of emptiness.
There really are only two ways of understanding svabhāva: as essence and as substance. What was called svabhāva as absolute reality is only a specific form of svabhāva understood as essence: in the same way as heat is an essential quality of fire, emptiness is an essential quality of all phenomena. Things could not be the things they are without being empty.
If we understand svabhāva in terms of essence it has to be considered a property an object could not lose without ceasing to be that very object: the svabhāva of fire is to be hot, the svabhāva of water to be wet.
If svabhāva is regarded as the true nature of phenomena it is sometimes characterized as not brought about by any causal process, as unchangeable and as independent of any other object.
The understanding of svabhāva in terms of substance (which is rejected by Nāgārjuna) conceives of it as an end-point in a series of dependence relations. Various kinds of dependence relations are discussed in the Madhyamaka literature; the most important ones are :
mereological dependence (the dependence of a composite object on its parts),
causal dependence (the dependence of an effect on its cause) and
conceptual dependence (the dependence of an object on the conceptualizing mind).
For the Madhyamaka these dependence relations are equivalent to the extent that none ever bottoms out.
In his most well-known discussion of causation Nāgārjuna distinguishes four ways in which things could be causally be brought about. They could be produced