The WILL's strife leads, in living creatures, to constant suffering. The restlessness that characterizes life is a reflection of the WILL's relentless pursuit of its goal.
ONLY living creatures suffer, as a side effect of their seeming separation (alters) from the rest of nature. But there is nothing to suggest that the primordial WILL, prior to alter formation, suffers ! The original impetus (impuls, momentum, stuwing) is SELF-UNDRSTANDING, NOT the avoidance of suffering.
The noble eightfold path - The denial of the WILL
Schopenhauer opens the door to a solution. By attaining insight into HOW and WHY they suffer beings can ease their suffering. Volition (gehechtheid, afkeer en onwetendheid, begeerten en hunkeringen. In het boeddhisme wordt de term dukkha gebruikt voor lijden) is the source of all suffering.
To overcome suffering, all that is thus needed is for INDIVIDUAL SUBJECTS to overcome their own endogenous feeling states : for we have no reason to believe that the will-at-large suffers, and so its endogenous feeling states need not be supplanted (repressed, verdrongen). The alter's endogenous feeling states become supplanted WHEN it discerns (waarnemen) the eternal Ideas (Plato) through the apparatus of perception.
the eternal Ideas correspond to a lightly self-reflective apprehension of universal templates of the will's objectification, but WITHOUT the cognitive mediation of spacetime and causality ! (step 3, but bypasses steps 1 and 2).
the pure or timeless subject of knowledge corresponds to the CONTENTLESS universale recipient of experience (leegte ?), the core-subjectivity of the universal WILL that underlies and grounds each alter !
The person who is involved in this perception is NO LONGER an individual ... he is PURE WILL-less, painless, timesless subject of knowledge (sherab, yeshe). The altes DIS-IDENTIFIES with its particular endogenous feelings.
The alter has to subdue (onderwerpen) its endogenous volitional states, otherwise it would still have salient (opvallend, verstorend, klesha's ?) endogenous contents. The way to achieve this is to observe an object (éénpuntige concentratie) in the world in such a manner as to "lose/sink ourselves entirely in this object". The "entire consciousness is the filled and occupied by a SINGLE image of perception", which is the eternal Idea behind the object. The apprehension of the eternal Ideas must be the SOLE and COMPLETE FOCUS of attention of the alter, so as to supplant any intellectual processing of endogenous feelings ! The latter must NOT be re-represented at all, so to free the ENTIRE field of self-reflection. And because eternal Ideas are universal and their apprehension (begripsvermogen) independent of individual perspective, once the alter's meta-consciousness becomes filled with them, the alter LOSES the ability to identify itself with any NON-iniversal content of consciousness, thereby TEMPORARILY (niet definitief Nirvana !) forfeiting (verliezen, verbeurd) its individuality.
Sensoro overload : the SUBJECT by passing entirely into the perceived OBJECT (guru, apple, image, ...) has also become the object itself, since the entire consciousness is nothing more than its distinct image ! It is because of this that we are no longer able to separate the PERCEIVER form the PERCEPTION, but the two have become ONE (niet-duaal). P.S. : subject and object still persist as distinct but indistinguishable entities ! The alters volitional states - attendant upon its instinctive desire to survive (Darwin !) as an organism - become the pure, painless subject of knowledge, who doen't suffer.
In the process of doing so, the alter helps realize the metaphysical meaning of human life, insofar it is a necessary step towards achieving the WILL's goal of explicit SELF_AWARENESS.