The Buddha's Dharma, can be divided to two vehicles:
the Hinayana and
The Hinayana itself can be divided into :
the vehicle of the shravakas and
the vehicle of the pratyekabuddhas.
The shravakas and pratyekabuddhas can be differentiated according to the relative inferiority and superiority of their faculties and the results they obtain, but the doctrinal features of the paths they follow are basically the same. People with the propensity to follow these two Hinayana vehicles take them up for the sake of their own emancipation as they feel the urgency to first free themselves as quickly as possible from the vicious cycle of existence. Since the main cause of bondage in samsara is grasping at a self, the main cause of obtaining the freedom of liberation is the wisdom that realizes the meaning selflessness. Thus, shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, like bodhisattvas, realize selflessness. They meditate on it accompanied by the other paths of moral conduct, meditative concentration and so forth, and thus extinguish all their passions, greed, hatred, ignorance and so forth.
Even though Hinayanists do not engage in their path intending to obtain Buddhahood, their path is in fact a means for ultimately leading such people to the stage of Buddhahood. Thus, do not misapprehend the Hinayana paths as being solely an obstacle to enlightenment, because the Saddharmapundarika sutra and other texts teach that they are methods for achieving Buddhahood. The Buddha appears in the world so that sentient beings may obtain the gnosis that he himself obtained. Thus, the Buddha's demonstrations of the path are strictly means to lead sentient beings to Buddhahood. Even though the Hinayana paths do not lead directly to Buddhahood, it is taught that followers of the Hinayana do in fact eventually enter the Mahayana and obtain Buddhahood.
Although followers of the Hinayana, like followers of the Mahayana, realize that phenomena are devoid of own-being, it is not the case that there is no difference at all between the Hinayana and the Mahayana. The doctrines of the Mahayana do not merely illuminate the selflessness of phenomena,
they teach the bodhisattva stages,
the prayer to achieve perfect enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings,
great compassion, and so forth.
They also teach the dedication of merits to enlightenment,
the two accumulations of merit and gnosis, and
the inconceivable reality that is purified of all stains.
Thus, the Mahayana and Hinayana are not distinguished due to differences in their philosophical viewpoints, but they are differentiated according to their respective practice and non-practice of the entire range of skillful means.
This is the assertion of Arya Nagarjuna and his disciple Aryadeva: A mother is the common cause of all her sons, and their fathers are the causes for distinguishing their races. Just so the mother, the perfection of wisdom, is the common cause of the sons, all four kinds of aryas:
bodhisattava aryas, and
The cause for differentiating them into the particular Hinayana and Mahayana lineages is whether or not they have the methods of generating bodhichitta and so forth. The general Mahayana, like the Hinayana, can be subdivided into two vehicles:
the Paramita-yana and
The common aim of the Mahayana is to train oneself in the six perfections by practising them out of a desire to obtain unexcelled enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. It is clear that one proceeds in the Mantra-yana by this same path, because it is taught in the tantras. However, Mahayana practitioners who follow :
the paramita-yana merely take up that much of the general body of the path,
whereas followers of the Mantrayana cultivate the perfections by means of special tantric techniques that are not taught in the paramita-yana. in die zin is het Vajra-yana, esoterisch (iets voor ingewijden, geheim).
The terms :
"Cause vehicle", "Paramita-yana", and so forth are synonyms,
and "Mantra-yana", "Vajra-yana", "Effect vehicle", and "Method vehicle" are synonyms as well.
There is a difference between the cause vehicle and the effect vehicle:
the cause vehicle is the Mahayana vehicle in which there is no meditation on oneself having a like aspect with any of the effects-the four complete purities-during the period of the path of training.
The Mahayana vehicle in which there is meditation on oneself as having a like aspect with the four complete purities during the period of the path of training is called "The Effect vehicle" or "The Mantra-yana".
This is what the master Tsongkhapa said in the Ngag Rim Chenmo: "With regard to vehicle, since it is the vehicle of, i.e., conveys, the effect that is desired here and the cause that desires this, it is called 'vehicle'. The effect is the four complete purities of :
abode (huis), body, property, and activities,
a buddha's palace, body, wealth, and deeds.
One meditates from the present on oneself as having a divine mansion, a divine entourage, divine ritual implements, and the divine deeds of purifying the cosmos and its inhabitants, just like a Buddha, Thus, it is the Effect Vehicle because one progresses through meditating in accordance with the vehicle of the effect."
Thus, the Mahayana as a whole is divided into the Paramitayana and the Mantrayana because these two have substantially different means for achieving a Buddha's Form Body that accomplishes the aims of others. In general, the Hinayana and the Mahayana are not distinguished according to any difference in their wisdom of emptiness, but must be distinguished due to differences in their methods, as mentioned above. In particular, although the Mahayana is divided into the Paramitayana and the Mantrayana, this is not due to any difference in their wisdom that realizes the profound emptiness; the two Mahayana systems must be distinguished from the point of view of differences in their methods. The main aspect of method in the Mahayana is the portion dealing with achievement of the Form Body, and the method that achieves the Form Body in the Mantrayana is just the deity yoga of meditating on oneself as having an aspect similar to that of a Form Body. This method is superior to the method employed in the Paramitayana.
With regard to the disciples of the Mantrayana, there are four types:
The four classes of tantra were taught with these four types of disciples in mind!
Since the disciples enter the Mantrayana through the four classes of tantra, the four classes are likened to "four doors." Should you wonder what the four are, they are :
Yoga Tantra, and
Unexcelled Yoga Tantra. The Kalachakra, which will be described below, belongs to the Unexcelled Yoga Tantra class.
Dhammanuvatti betekent: 'handelen overeenkomstig de Leer' oftewel 'iemand die de Leer beoefent'. Om de Leer te kunnen beoefenen wordt de Leer uiteraard bestudeerd a.d.h.v. de woorden van de Boeddha. Zo kunnen de instructies van de Leraar worden opgevolgd en in praktijk worden gebracht. Zie ook pariyatti. Dat er een groot verschil is tussen de niet-geïnstrueerde wereldling en de geïnstrueerde edele discipel, maakt de Boeddha o.a. duidelijk — Lokavipatti Sutta — De wisselvalligheden van het leven.
KALYANA MITTA 'Een edele of goede vriend', zo wordt een senior monnik genoemd die de mentor en vriend is van zijn leerling, hem zijn welzijn wenst, zich met zijn proces bezig houdt, en zijn meditatie begeleidt. De meditatieleraar (kammatthanacariya) in het bijzonder wordt zo genoemd.
Cirkel, de perfecte ronde vorm
Velg, de buitenrand
The dharma wheel, or dharmachakra in Sanskrit, is one of the oldest symbols of Buddhism. Around the globe, it is used to:
represent Buddhism in the same way that
a cross represents Christianity or
a Star of David represents Judaism.
It is also one of the Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism. Similar symbols are found in :
and it is likely the dharmachakra symbol in Buddhism evolved out of Hinduism.
A traditional dharma wheel is a chariot wheel with varying numbers of spokes. It can be in any color, although it is most often gold. At the center, there may be three shapes swirling together, :
a yin-yang symbol (invloed van het Taoïsme ?), or is it the Gankyil - Wikipedia The gankyil as inner wheel of the dharmachakra is depicted on the Flag of Sikkim,and is also depicted on the Flag of Tibet and Emblem of Tibet. The "wheel of joy" (Sanskrit: ānanda-cakra) is a symbol and ritual tool used in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism. It is composed of three (sometimes two or four) swirling and interconnected blades. In the Dzogchen tradition the three swirls of the gakyil primarily symbolize the trinity of the base, path, and fruit.
a second wheel, or
an empty circle.
What the Dharma Wheel Represents A dharma wheel has three basic parts: the hub, the rim, and the spokes. Over the centuries, various teachers and traditions have proposed diverse meanings for these parts. Here are some common understandings of the wheel's symbolism:
The circle, the round shape of the wheel, represents the perfection of the dharma, the Buddha's teaching.
The rim of the wheel represents meditative concentration and mindfulness, which hold practice together.
The hub represents moral discipline.
The three swirls often seen on the hub are sometimes said to represent the Three Treasures or Three Jewels:
They may also represent joy.
The spokes signify different concepts, depending on their number:
When a wheel has eight spokes, the spokes represent the Eightfold Path. An eight-spoke wheel is the most common form of the wheel in Buddhism.
When a wheel has ten spokes, the spokes represent the ten directions—in effect, everywhere.
When a wheel has twelve spokes, the spokes represent the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.
When a wheel has 24 spokes, the spokes represent the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination plus the reversing of the Twelves Links and liberation from samsara. A 24-spoke dharma wheel is also called an Ashoka Chakra.
When a wheel has 31 spokes, the spokes represent the 31 realms of existence from ancient Buddhist cosmology.
When a wheel has four spokes, which is rare, the spokes represent either the Four Noble Truths or the four dhyanas.
The wheel often has spokes protruding beyond the wheel, which we might imagine are spikes, although usually, they don't look very sharp. The spikes represent various penetrating insights.