De belangrijkste scholen uit de Tibetaanse traditie
The Three Dharma Seals
De eerste vaststellingen die de Boeddha deed op het moment van zijn verlichting en die ook voor leken praktische betekenis hadden, waren : De Drie Kenmerken van ons Bestaan :
het leven (mens, levende wezens) is niet iets dat op zichzelf bestaat, niet-zelf of zonder zelf, zonder eigenaar, bezitter (anatta)
alles (wat samengesteld en geconditioneerd is) is vergankelijk, impermament, vergankelijk van aard (anicca)
in het leven bestaat er lijden (dukkha)
dit alles veroorzaakt door "the three main roots of evil", called mula priyaya : haat (dosa), begeerte (lobha) en onwetendheid (moha). Deze drie hoofdoorzaken worden ook genoemd : drie bronnen van lijden, drie vergiften van de geest. In the contemporary Mahayana and Theravada Buddhist traditions, the three kleshas of ignorance, attachment, and aversion are identified as the root or source of all other kleshas. These are referred to as the three poisons (de drie vergiften) in the Mahayana tradition, or as the three unwholesome roots (de drie onheilzame wortels) in the Theravada tradition.
While the early Buddhist texts of the Pali canon do not specifically enumerate the three root kleshas, over time the three poisons (and the kleshas generally) came to be seen as the very roots of samsaric existence. In the Pali Canon's Abhidhamma ten defilements are identified, the first three of which – greed, hate, delusion – are considered to be the "roots" of suffering.
De Vier Waarheden, het Achtvoudige Pad en diverse Voorschriften (het monnikenwerk) werden hieruit afgeleid ten behoeve van een select publiek, de bikkhu's.
The Three Dharma Seals are (source : the Samyukta Agama) :
Nonself (anatman) and
In the Southern Transmission Suffering (dukkha) rather than Nirvana as a Dharma seal. But suffering is not a basic element of existence. It is a feeling. Any teachnig that does not bear these 3 seals cannot be said to be a teaching of the Buddha.
All Tibetan Buddhist philosophers who where educated in the Tibetan monastic system, affiliates themselves with the Madhyamaka school of Buddhist thought. All Tibetan Buddhist philosophers cite Nāgārjuna’s texts as authoritative, and disagreements among different scholars in Tibetan Buddhism primarily concern the correct ways to interpret the works of Nāgārjuna and his commentators. Their philosophy is based on Nāgārjuna’s concepts of emptiness and the two truths, and, like all Buddhists, they agree that the elimination of ignorance will eliminate suffering and lead to enlightenment.
Verder lezen : "The heart of the Buddha's teaching", Thich Nhat Hanh
The Three Doors of Liberation
The three dharma seals are the keys we can use to enter the three doors of liberation (the three concentrations). All schools of Buddhism accept the teaching of the Three Doors of Liberation.
Nagarjuna taught that the city of Nirvana has three gates: emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness. These are also known as the three doors of liberation (vimoksamukha).
Emptiness (sunyata) is knowing that all things in their conventional or mundane aspect are non-substantial.
Signlessness (animitta-ta) is the emptiness of signs. It refers to not seizing upon things in their mundane aspect and using them as objects for clinging.
Wishlessness (apranihita-ta) is abstaining from actions based on passion and desire.
Nagarjuna tells us that the three gates also correspond to knowledge, wisdom, insight Dharma then is the path that leads to the three gates and samadhi or meditation is the vehicle that carries us along the path and into the city.
Emptiness means empty of a separate, independent self. Not less, not more !
We cannot be by ourselves alone.
We can only inter-be with EVERYTHING else in the cosmos, all the causes and conditions.
This is the interbeing and interpenetrating nature of ALL that IS.
Emptiness does not mean non-existence !
It means Interdependent Co-Arising, impermanence and nonself !
Things do exist. Emptiness is the Middle Way between existent and nonexistent, also called "wondrous being"
"Sign" means an appearance or "the object of our perception"
squareness, roundness, solid, fluid, ...
Signs are instruments for us, but they are not absolute truth
True water is the suchness of water
We have to touch the signless nature of things
Tathagata means " the wondrous nature of reality"
When we look deeply into things, we see all the elements that have produced them (dynamics). They ARE the way they are, because the elements circumstances) are the way they are. Many causes and conditions have contributed.
The flower cannot be limited to its brief manifestation ! Nothing has died.
The Diamond Sutra enumeraties four signs : SELF, PERSON (human), LIVING BEING and LIFE SPAN --> 3 kayas ?
Living, sentient beings are made of non-living, non-sentient species : the interbeing of living and non-living beings
Wishlessness/Aimlessness means that there is nothing to do, nothing to realize, no program, no agenda
The Heart Sutra says that there is nothing to attain (because enlightenment is already in us ?)
We already have everything we are looking for, everything we want to become
We are already a Buddha
Be yourself. Life is precious as it IS. Just BE.
We are at peace in the present moment. I am happy in the present moment. I am not afraid or anxious. I feel free. We can have peace in our hart and be a refuge for others.
The Theory of Two Truths in Tibet
All Tibetan philosophers and the schools — Nyingma, Kagyü, Sakya, and Gelug — they established are self-confessed followers of the Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka school of thought, and follow Candrakīrti closely. Tibetans agree that Candrakīrti is the undisputed authority in commenting and interpreting Nāgārjuna's Madhyamaka theory of the two truths. The Tibetan Prāsaṅgikas however disagreed, debated and fought fiercely amongst themselves concerning many philosophical questions.
Nyingma Longchen Rabjam sets out the course of the Nyingma theory of the truths.
Kagyü According to Karmapa Mikyö Dorje, Ātisha and his followers in Tibet, are the authoritative former masters of the Prāsaṅgika.
Sakya Sakya's theory of two truths is defended in the works of the succession of Sakya scholars—Sakya Paṅḍita (1182–1251), Rongtön Shakya Gyaltsen (1367–1449), the translator Taktsang Lotsawa (1405–?), Gorampa Sonam Senge (1429–89) and Shakya Chogden (1428–1509). In particular Gorampa Sonam Senge's works are unanimously recognised as the authoritative representation of the Sakya's position.
Gelug Gelug's theory of the two truths is campioned by Tsongkhapa Lobsang Dragpa (1357–1419). Tsongkhapa's theory is adopted, expanded and defended in the works of his immediate disciples.
The lineage of the Kagyu emphasizes the continuity of oral instructions passed on from master to student. This emphasis is reflected in the literal meaning of "Kagyu." The first syllable "Ka" refers to the scriptures of the Buddha and the oral instructions of the guru. "Ka" has the sense both of the enlightened meaning conveyed by the words of the teacher, as well as the force which such words of insight carries. The second syllable "gyu" means lineage or tradition. Together, these syllables mean "the lineage of the oral instructions."
The general Buddhist canon of the Kagyur (bk’a ‘gyur) – “translated words of the Buddha,” and Tengyur (bstan ‘gryur) – “translated treatises” provides the primary sources for the Kagyu lineage.